Schweinsteiger has called time on his Germany career after 12 years with Die Mannschaft, in which he managed 120 appearances and scored 24 goals.
The 2014 World Cup winner announced his decision on his social media, asking national team coach Joachim Louw not to consider him for future selections.
"Dear Germany fans, I have asked the manager not to consider me for inclusion in the natonal side any longer as I would like to retire," read the post.
"My thanks go to the fans, the team, the DFB, the coaches and support team around the Germany national team.
"I was able to run out for my country in 120 internationals and experience moments which were indescribably beautiful and successful.
"Jogi [Joachim] Low knew how much Euro 2016 in France meant to me, because I was desperate to win this trophy which we have not been able to take back to Germany since 1996. It was not to be and I have to accept that.
"By winning the World Cup in 2014 we achieved something historic and emotional that I will not be able to repeat in my career.
"So it is the right and sensible thing to do to call time on things now and to wish the team all the best in qualifying for the 2018 World Cup.
"By retiring I am leaving behind the national team, which has always been a precious family to me. But I hope the connection will still be retained in one form or another.
"And to end I would like to say to our fans: 'It was an honour to be able to play for you, thank you for everything we were able to experience together!'”
The former Bayern Munich star was restricted to just 13 Premier League appearances last season, and is rumoured to be on his way out at Old Trafford after joining them at the beginning of last season.